What is the science behind #LockTheClock?

Health – Overall

Health – Specific Conditions

Children and Schools

Traffic and Transportation

Energy and Environment

Crime and Human Behavior



  • Permanent DST is better for society overall than Permanent ST
    University of Washington Law School
  • Voters further east in a time zone prefer Permanent DST, and Permanent ST for those further west.
    Journal of Biological Rhythms
  • The spring clock change makes marathon runners 12 minutes slower.
    Chronobiology International
  • Clock-changing harms relationships.
    Wall St. Journal, citing several studies, subscription required
  • Clock-changing brings harsher sentences from judges.
    Psychological Science
  • It’s a non-partisan issue, and farmers have traditionally been opposed to DST.
    Social Science Quarterly
  • Scientists don’t subject lab rats to clock-changing because it is too disruptive.
    NPR interview with neuroscientist
  • People do worse at video games after a clock change, showing that cognitive function overall goes down.
    George Washington University and U.S. Army Research Lab
  • Declarations about the clock relative to the sun and sleep are probably too simplistic given the complexities of the science.
    LMU – Munich
  • While year-round Standard Time may be better for sleep, scientists who believe that should not push that point of view dogmatically because they will alienate people from science.
    Clocks & Sleep
    (In fact, this is a great paper to read if you are thinking about using any of this research to push the point of view that permanent Standard or Daylight time is better. It’s very hard to say. The only thing conclusive is that changing the clocks, especially in the spring, is deadly.)

Also, here is the excellent study done in the state of Massachusetts:
The Report of the Special Commission on the Commonwealth’s Time Zone, or download here.

And here is a handy report prepared for the Missouri legislature in 2022:
Summary and Full PDF.

If you would like to use all this research, you are of course welcome to, but I would appreciate a link to this site. Thanks.